Spór migracyjny wśród użytkowników Twittera na #BrexitDay

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

Piotr Teodorowski
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2172-8298

Abstrakt

Państwa liberalne prowadzą politykę zachęcania do imigracji i jednocześnie kontrolowania jej. Demokracja reprezentatywna, państwo narodowe, konstytucjonalizm i kapitalizm - każdy z tych systemów wymaga konkretnej strategii migracyjnej. Poprzednie badania skupiały się na postawach wobec migracji, wykorzystywały metody ilościowe, których celem było analizowanie wartości i percepcji wpływających na opinie społeczeństwa. Stąd różnorodność i złożoność nastrojów społecznych jest mniej znana. Artykuł ma na celu przedstawienie perspektyw opartych na tweetach w ostatnim dniu (i okolicach) członkostwa Wielkiej Brytanii w Unii Europejskiej (31stycznia 2020 r.). Dane zebrano za pomocą NCapture - rozszerzenia przeglądarki internetowej, które pobierało tweety z hashtagami #Brexit, #BrexitDay i #BrexitEve i importowało je bezpośrednio do NVivo. Siedmiokrotnie przechwycono tweety w dniach 30-31stycznia i 1, 7-10 lutego; zbierając 250 095 tweetów opublikowanych między 23 stycznia a 10 lutego. Wszystkie retweety, duplikaty, tweety w jęz. innym niż angielski i spam zostały usunięte; pozostawiono 888 tweetów do analizy. Tweety zostały zakodowane dwukrotnie; stosunek do brexitu zakodowano jako pozytywny (n = 203), negatywny (n = 586) lub neutralny (n = 99). Przeprowadzono również analizę tematyczną. Wyniki pokazały, że podział dyskursu na temat migracji był bardziej skomplikowany niż tylko debata "za" i "przeciw" imigracji. Co ciekawe wyniki wskazują także na przesunięcie się granicy w brytyjskiej debacie migracyjnej od rozważania korzyści i wad imigracji po przyszłe, dwustronne zasady migracji między Wielką Brytanią a Unią Europejską.

Pobrania

Dane pobrania nie są jeszcze dostepne

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

Jak cytować
Teodorowski, P. (2020) „Spór migracyjny wśród użytkowników Twittera na #BrexitDay”, Studia z Polityki Publicznej , 7(4(28), s. 83-104. doi: 10.33119/KSzPP/2020.4.5.
Dział
Dział główny

Bibliografia

Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge: Mass, Addison-Wesley Pub.
Balch, A., Balabanova, E. (2014). Ethics, Politics and Migration: Public Debates on the Free Movement of Romanians and Bulgarians in the UK, 2006-2013. Politics, 36(1): 19-35.
Benedi Lahuerta, S., Iusmen, I. (2020). EU nationals' vulnerability in the context of Brexit: the case of Polish nationals. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 1-23.
Bhagwati, J. (2003). Borders Beyond Control. Foreign Affairs, January/February: 98-104.
Bigo, D. (2002). Security and Immigration: Toward a Critique of the Governmentality of Unease. Alternatives, 27(1): 63-92.
Blinder, S., Allen, W.L. (2016). Constructing Immigrants: Portrayals of Migrant Groups in British National Newspapers, 2010-2012. International Migration Review, 50(1): 3-40.
Blinder, S., Richards, L. (2020). UK Public Opinion toward Immigration: Overall Attitudes and Level of Concern. Retrieved from: https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Briefing-UK-Public-Opinion-toward-Immigration-Overall-Attitudes-and-Level-of-Concern.pdf (accessed: 18.02.2020).
Boffey, D. (2020). Sadiq Khan urges EU to offer Britons 'associate citizenship' [Online]. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2020/feb/18/sadiq-khan-urges-eu-to-offer-britons-associate-citizenship (accessed: 19.02.2020).
Braun, V., Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2): 77-101.
Cheregi, B.-F. (2018). The Media Framing of Migration in Sending and Receiving Countries: The Case of Romanians Migrating to the UK. In: J. Mulholland, N. Montagna, E. Sanders-Mcdonagh (Eds.), Gendering Nationalism: Intersections of Nation, Gender and Sexuality: 259-280. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Duffy, B., Frere-Smith, T. (2014). Perceptions and Reality: 10 things we should know about attitudes to immigration in the UK. Ipsos MORI. Retrieved from: https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/migrations/en-uk/files/Assets/Docs/Publications/sri-perceptions-and-reality-immigration-report-summary-2013.pdf (accessed: 18.02.2020).
Facchini, G., Mayda, A.M. (2009). Does the Welfare State Affect Individual Attitudes toward Immigrants? Evidence Across Countries. Review of Economics & Statistics, 91(2): 295-314.
Fitzgerald, J., Curtis, K.A., Corliss, C.L. (2011). Anxious Publics: Worries About Crime and Immigration. Comparative Political Studies, 45(4): 477-506.
Goodwin, M.J., Heath, O. (2016). The 2016 Referendum, Brexit and the Left Behind: An Aggregate-level Analysis of the Result. The Political Quarterly, 87(3): 323-332.
Gorodzeisky, A., Semyonov, M. (2015). Not only Competitive Threat but also Racial Prejudice: Sources of Anti-Immigrant Attitudes in European Societies. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 28(3): 331-354.
Hainmueller, J., Hangartner, D. (2013). Who Gets a Swiss Passport? A Natural Experiment in Immigrant Discrimination. American Political Science Review, 107(1): 159-187.
Hampshire, J. (2013). The Politics of Immigration: Contradictions of the Liberal State. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hanel, P.H.P., Wolf, L.J. (2019). Leavers and Remainers after the Brexit referendum: More united than divided after all? British Journal of Social Psychology, 59(2): 470-493.
Harris, C., Gawlewicz, A., Valentine, G. (2019). Attitudes towards immigration: responses to the increased presence of Polish migrants in the UK post 2004. Migration and Development, 1-20.
Higgins, K.W. (2019). National belonging post-referendum: Britons living in other EU Member States respond to "Brexit". Area, 51(2): 277-284.
Hollifield, J.F. (2004). The Emerging Migration State. International Migration Review, 38 (3): 885-912.
Home Office (2020). The UK's points-based immigration system: policy statement, Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-uks-points-based-immigration-system-policy-statement (accessed: 19.02.2020).
Joseph, K., Landwehr, P.M., Carley, K.M. (2014). Two 1%s Don't Make a Whole: Comparing Simultaneous Samples from Twitter's Streaming API. In: W.G. Kennedy, N. Agarwal, S. Jay Yang (Eds.), Social Computing, Behavioral-Cultural Modeling and Prediction: 75-83. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Kenny, M., Pearce, N. (2016). After Brexit: The Eurosceptic dream of an Anglosphere. Juncture, 22 (4): 304-307.
Keohane, R.O., Nye JR, J.S. (1973). Power and interdependence. Survival, 15(4): 158-165.
Maidment, J. (2017). Theresa May commits Tories to cutting net migration to the UK to the tens of thousands. Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/04/20/theresa-may-commits-tories-cutting-net-migration-uk-tens-thousands/ (accessed: 19.02.2020).
Mclaren, L., Johnson, M. (2007). Resources, Group Conflict and Symbols: Explaining Anti-Immigration Hostility in Britain. Political Studies, 55(4): 709-732.
Meleady, R., Seger, C.R., Vermue, M. (2017). Examining the role of positive and negative intergroup contact and anti-immigrant prejudice in Brexit. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56(4): 799-808.
Migration Advisory Committee (2020). Migration Advisory Committee (MAC) report: points-based system and salary thresholds. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/migration-advisory-committee-mac-report-points-based-system-and-salary-thresholds (accessed: 19.02.2020).
Migration Observatory (2018). Unsettled Status? Which EU Citizens are at Risk of Failing to Secure their Rights after Brexit? Retrieved from: https://migrationobservatory.ox.ac. uk/resources/reports/unsettled-status-which-eu-citizens-are-at-risk-of-failing-to-secure-their-rights-after-brexit/ (accessed: 20.02.2020).
Miller, R.G. (2019). (Un)settling home during the Brexit process. Population, Space and Place, 25 (1): e2203.
Morrison, J. (2019). Re-framing free movement in the countdown to Brexit? Shifting UK press portrayals of EU migrants in the wake of the referendum. The British Journal of Politics and International Relations, 21(3): 594-611.
Nvivo (2020). NCapture. Retrieved from: https://help-nv.qsrinternational.com/12/win/v12.1. 90-d3ea61/Content/ncapture/ncapture.htm (accessed: 17.02.2020).
Office For National Statistics (2019). Population of the UK by country of birth and nationality: July 2018 to June 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcom-munity/populationandmigration/internationalmigration/bulletins/ukpopulationbycoun-tryofbirthandnationality/july2018tojune2019 (accessed: 10.02.2020).
Ousey, G.C., Kubrin, C.E. (2018). Immigration and Crime: Assessing a Contentious Issue. Annual Review of Criminology, 1: 63-84.
Oxford Economics (2018). The Fiscal Impact of Immigration on the UK: A report for the Migration Advisory Committee. Retrieved from: https://www.oxfordeconomics.com/publication/open/305055 (accessed: 24.02.2020).
Ranta, R., Nancheva, N. (2019). Unsettled: Brexit and European Union nationals' sense of belonging. Population, Space and Place, 25(1): e2199.
Ruzza, C., Pejovic, M. (2019). Populism at work: the language of the Brexiteers and the European Union. Critical Discourse Studies, 16(4): 432-448.
Rzepnikowska, A. (2018). Racism and xenophobia experienced by Polish migrants in the UK before and after Brexit vote. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(1): 1-17.
Scottish Government (2020). Plan for Scottish Visa. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.scot/news/plan-for-scottish-visa/ (accessed: 18.02.2020).
Semyonov, M., Raijman, R., Gorodzeisky, A. (2006). The Rise of Anti-foreigner Sentiment in European Societies, 1988-2000. American Sociological Review, 71(3): 426-449.
Spigelman, A. (2013). The depiction of Polish migrants in the United Kingdom by the British press after Poland's accession to the European Union. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 33 (1/2): 98-113.
Teodorowski, P., Woods, R., Czarnecka, M., Kennedy, C. (2019). How Brexit impacts EU citizens' mental health and wellbeing: research findings. Retrieved from: https://rgu-repository. worktribe.com/output/845732/how-brexit-impacts-eu-citizens-mental-health-and-well-being-research-findings (accessed: 11.11.2020).
The 3 Million (2019). Physical Proof. Retrieved from: https://www.the3million.org.uk/physical-proof (accessed: 25.09.2019).
Townsend, L., Wallace, C. (2016). Social media research: A guide to ethics. Retrieved from: https://www.gla.ac.uk/media/Media_487729_smxx.pdf (accessed: 21.02.2020).
United Nations (2017). Population facts. Retrieved from: https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/popfacts/PopFacts_2017-5.pdf (accessed: 11.11.2020).
Van Oorschot, W. (2006). Making the difference in social Europe: deservingness perceptions among citizens of European welfare states. Journal of European Social Policy, 16(1): 23-42.
Vasilopoulou, S., Talving, L. (2019). Opportunity or threat? Public attitudes towards EU freedom of movement. Journal of European Public Policy, 26(6): 805-823.
Wright, O. (2016). EU referendum: Nigel Farage's anti-migrant poster like 1930s fascist propaganda, says George Osborne. The Independent. Retrieved from: https://www.independent. co.uk/news/uk/politics/eu-referendum-poster-nigel-farage-polls-michael-gove-a7089946. html (accessed: 17.02.2020).
Yarris, K., Castaneda, H. (2015). Special Issue Discourses of Displacement and Deservingness: Interrogating Distinctions between "Economic" and "Forced" Migration. International Migration, 53(3): 64-69.
Zamora-Kapoor, A., Verea, M. (2014). Public attitudes toward immigration in turbulent times. Migration Studies, 2(2): 131-134.
Zappettini, F. (2019). The Brexit referendum: how trade and immigration in the discourses of the official campaigns have legitimised a toxic (inter) national logic. Critical Discourse Studies, 16(4): 403-419.
Zontini, E., Pero, D. (2019). EU Children in Brexit Britain: Re-Negotiating Belonging in Nationalist Times. International Migration, 58(1): 90-104.