Dyfuzja polityki publicznej w systemach federalnych podczas stanu wyjątkowego. Upowszechnianie polityki lockdownu podczas pandemii COVID-19 w Stanach Zjednoczonych

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Sharon Elhadad
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7329-3882
Udi Sommer
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9284-5291

Abstrakt

Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia ujednolicony model dyfuzji polityki publicznej w celu analizy szybkości przyjmowania stanowych polityk lockdownu w systemie federalnym podczas pandemii COVID-19. Został tu zbudowany zmodyfikowany ujednolicony model w celu lepszego zrozumienia dyfuzji polityki publicznej w kontekstach, w których istniejące modele nie spełniają oczekiwań. Wyróżniono trzy główne kanały dyfuzji polityki publicznej: regionalny, wertykalny i wewnętrzny. Artykuł zawiera empiryczny test modelu na przykładzie Stanów Zjednoczonych i stwierdza, że efekty wertykalne, takie jak wyższe oceny poparcia dla prezydenta Donalda Trumpa, a także stosunkowo wysoki udział federalnego wsparcia finansowego na walkę z COVID-19, mają silny pozytywny związek z szybkością przyjmowania lockdownu. Ponadto ważne są również pewne efekty wewnętrzne - wyższe oceny akceptacji gubernatorów są pozytywnie powiązane z szybkością polityki przyjmowania lockdownu w całym stanie, podobnie jak wydatki stanowe i lokalne, demokratyczne rządy i świadomość ludności na temat wirusa. Jednak inne czynniki wewnętrzne, takie jak rygorystyczne stanowe polityki lockdownu i względny odsetek zgonów z powodu COVID-19 na poziomie stanowym, były minimalnie związane z szybkością przyjmowania polityki lockdownów. Co zaskakujące, w przeciwieństwie do wcześniejszych badań, horyzontalne efekty regionalne nie odegrały znaczącej roli w analizie - szybkość przyjmowania polityki lockdownu przez sąsiednie państwa nie ma związku z tempem przyjmowania lockdownu w całym kraju. Ogólnie rzecz biorąc, wyniki sugerują silny wpływ czynników politycznych na szybkość wdrażania polityki lockdownu w Stanach Zjednoczonych na poziomie stanowym.

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Elhadad, S. i Sommer, U. (2022) „Dyfuzja polityki publicznej w systemach federalnych podczas stanu wyjątkowego. Upowszechnianie polityki lockdownu podczas pandemii COVID-19 w Stanach Zjednoczonych”, Studia z Polityki Publicznej, 9(1(33), s. 55-82. doi: 10.33119/KSzPP/2022.1.3.
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